reStructuredText (one word) is a plain-text markup language for writing technical documents, books, websites, and more. It is easy to read and write because it is just regular text and all you need is a simple text editor. Even Notepad would suffice. Despite it being written in plain-text, it is powerful enough to create professional technical documentation, books, and websites.
A common task when working with files is to walk through a directory, that is, recursively get every file in every directory starting in some location. The Python 3 os module has several functions useful for working with files and directories. One in particular, os.walk() is useful for recursively going through a directory and getting the contents in a structured way. These examples will show you a couple options for walking a directory recursively.
In Python, when building a framework or code generation tool, you might need to programmatically build a string representing the name of a module you want to import. How would you import a module if you have it's name as a string? Here's how to do it with importlib! Note that this feature was introduced in Python 3.1 but there is a 2.7 version of importlib though less featured.
In Python sometimes you need to figure out where a function lives on the hard disk, or what file is calling your function. The os module provides tools for getting file and directory information and the inspect module provides the ability to inspect the stack and see what module is calling your function.
In Ruby 2.3, they introduced a getpass method on the IO::console class. There are no dependencies since it part of the standard library, but it's only available in versions higher than 2.3. For older versions, we'll look at an alternative method. The getpass method is similar to gets except it will not echo back what you are typing in. This is good for getting a password without printint it to the screen when you type it in. This will demonstrate how to use the method. See the official documentation for IO::console#getpass for more details. We will also look using $stdin.noecho() to wrap Kernel.gets to get a password.