Walk a Directory in Python

A common task when working with files is to walk through a directory, that is, recursively get every file in every directory starting in some location. The Python 3 os module has several functions useful for working with files and directories. One in particular, os.walk() is useful for recursively going through a directory and getting the contents in a structured way. These examples will show you a couple options for walking a directory recursively.

Import Python Module by String Name

In Python, when building a framework or code generation tool, you might need to programmatically build a string representing the name of a module you want to import. How would you import a module if you have it's name as a string? Here's how to do it with importlib! Note that this feature was introduced in Python 3.1 but there is a 2.7 version of importlib though less featured.

Grab Image from Clipboard in Python with Pillow

Copy and paste operations are most often associated with text, but you can also copy and paste images and other formats. This example demonstrates how to pull an image off of the system clipboard using the Pillow package in Python. It has a convenient method for pulling images from the clipboard. There are a few ways you might get an image in your clipboard. For example, if you used your Grab or Snipping Tool to capture a section of your screen, but you haven't actually saved it yet, you can CTRL-C to copy the image to your clipboard. Or, if you right click an image in a web browser and choose "Copy Image".

Text-to-speech in Python with pyttsx3

This tutorials demonstrates how to use Python for text-to-speech using a cross-platform library, pyttsx3. This lets you synthesize text in to audio you can hear. This package works in Windows, Mac, and Linux. It uses native speech drivers when available and works completely offline. We will walk through how to install, convert text-to-speech, and switch between voices and languages.

Create ASCII Art Text Banners in Python

ASCII art has a long history in the hacker culture. If you check out any Phrack article and there is almost guaranteed to be some form of ASCII art in there. In this example we are specifically talking about ASCII art fonts that can be used to make banner text for command-line applications, network services, documentation, web pages, etc.

Nginx Tutorial

Nginx, pronounced "engine X", is a fast and lightweight web server, that can be used to serve static files, but is often used as a reverse proxy. It has some very nice features like load balancing and rate limiting. We'll cover some common use cases like serving files, creating a directory listing, reverse proxying to pass incoming traffic to a local web server, adding SSL encryption, and how to require https and www on your site. This guide is for someone who needs a quick reference to setting up a simple nginx server. For the latest documentation always check out the official website and the source mirror at

One-line HTTP servers

If you need a quick-and-dirty HTTP server that doesn't need fancy configuration, try some of these one-line HTTP servers in languages like Python, Ruby, and PHP. Some examples include a small script that allows you to embed the server in to your program and add more customization. These are not intended for production use.