Haskell is a purely functional programming language create in 1990. This Hello World example will help you get started with Haskell. Install Haskell for your system from the Haskell website. The program installed is called ghc which stands for the Glasgow Haskell Compiler. It can be run interactively or as a compiler.
Tcl is a language similar Bash because every line is a command and it can be scripted similar to shell scripts. Tcl can be used by itself but it typically embedded inside larger applications. Tcl with Tk toolkit allows you to create GUI applications. Once nice thing about Tcl/Tk is that it is widely available and works on multiple platforms. It does not create the nicest looking GUIs because it does not use native windows, but they are effective. Let's look at the most basic Hello World program. Let's name it hello.tcl.
Writing a Chrome extension is incredibly easy! You don't need any special tools either, just a text editor and Chrome. Create a folder and make a manifest.json and an index.html file. Fill them in with the information below and you are ready to go!
It is possible to write GTK2 application using PHP. It is a little work to get it compiled and installed, but once configured it is easy to write programs with GTK2. As of June 22, 2015 a development branch has been created for GTK3. Follow these installation instructions first. Then try out the code samples below. Load the php-gtk2 module in your php.ini as well.
PHP/TK implements object oriented bindings for TCL/TK that can be used to create GUI applications. It only works on Unix systems. PHP must be configured to allow dynamic linking with enable_dl = On in the php.ini. The shared object file (tk.so) can be downloaded manually from PECL. The shared object file goes inside your php modules folder which is typically something like /usr/lib/php/modules. Look for the folder with other .so files or refer to your particular distribution documentation.
Lisp goes back to the 50s and was popular in the 80s. It is one of the oldest programming languages. According to Wikipedia, Fortran is the only high level programming language older than Lisp. There were many dialects back then, but Common Lisp is the dialect of our age. It has been called the programmable programming language. It has a very interesting history.